ESOL Gramatika Výslovnost Testy Kurz 60 Texty Idiomy Nápovědy Angličtina

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60 Questions

Each sentence in Part A has a word or phrase underlined. Below each sentence are four other words or phrases. You are to choose the one word or phrase which would best keep the meaning of the original sentence if it were substituted for the underlined word.

1. The house by the sea had a mysterious air of SERENITY about it.
  1. melancholy
  2. joy
  3. sadness
  4. calmness

2. The speaker EMPHASIZED the need for cooperation in the project that we were about to undertake.
  1. accentuated
  2. downplayed
  3. discussed
  4. displayed

3. Maikl found it difficult to COPE WITH the loss of her job.
  1. anticipate
  2. think about
  3. deal with
  4. confirm

4. The number of UNEMPLOYED people in our country is increasing rapidly.
  1. licensed
  2. working
  3. business
  4. jobless

5. MIGRANT workers have difficulty finding steady employment.
  1. midget
  2. diligent
  3. transient
  4. unmotivated

6. Christopher Columbus was the first person to NAVIGATE under the patronage of Queen Isabella of Spain.
  1. explore
  2. sail
  3. work
  4. circumvent

7. The sun`s intense rays DISTORTED the image on the horizon.
  1. reflected
  2. altered
  3. melted
  4. disrupted

8. A new government department was established to control MARITIME traffic.
  1. sea
  2. military
  3. highway
  4. air

9. His company EMPOWERED him to negotiate the contract.
  1. helped
  2. forbade
  3. authorized
  4. ordered

10. His INVOLUNTARY reflexes betrayed his feelings.
  1. automatic
  2. unbelievable
  3. unnecessary
  4. unreasonable

11. The principal CONGRATULATED the student on his outstanding display of leadership.
  1. alluded
  2. scolded
  3. praised
  4. contacted

12. A middle-aged woman of tremendous GIRTH sat down beside the other patients in the waiting room.
  1. prestige
  2. rotundity
  3. eloquence
  4. mirth

13. NUMBING terror filled their brains as they witnessed the explosions.
  1. torpid
  2. tantalizing
  3. paralyzing
  4. sentient

14. The atmosphere in the police chief`s office was electric with CONTENTION.
  1. discord
  2. rejoicing
  3. weeping
  4. curiosity

15. Penny`s IMPROMPTU speech given at the state competition won her the first prize.
  1. interesting
  2. informative
  3. extemporaneous
  4. expressive

16. The slender boy SCALED the wall like a lizard.
  1. balanced
  2. crawled
  3. plastered
  4. climbed

17. The salon was the most elegant room Madeline had ever seen, despite its AUSTERITY.
  1. flexibility
  2. design
  3. decoration
  4. simplicity

18. The Royal Museum contains a FACSIMILE of the king`s famous declaration.
  1. copy
  2. showcase
  3. record
  4. new edition

19. The raccoon is a NOCTURNAL animal.
  1. harmless
  2. night
  3. marsupial
  4. diurnal

20. The author wrote with great CLARITY, not missing a single detail.
  1. genius
  2. cleverness
  3. clearness
  4. extensiveness

21. Double agents live in a PERPETUAL state of fear.
  1. perfect
  2. constant
  3. ceasing
  4. perpetrated

22. After the alien spacecraft had hovered over the park for a short while, it VANISHED.
  1. landed
  2. disappeared
  3. attacked
  4. rose

23. After receiving the insulting letter, Ron became FURIOUS.
  1. ghastly
  2. resentful
  3. fulgent
  4. irate

24. Her childhood POVERTY caused Lucy to be very thrifty as she grew older.
  1. practicality
  2. indigence
  3. wealth
  4. shyness

25. If the crops are not IRRIGATED soon, the harvest will be sparse.
  1. watered
  2. plowed
  3. planted
  4. fertilized

26. While in Europe on vacation, the twins ROAMED the countryside on their bikes.
  1. rounded
  2. rocked
  3. wandered
  4. rustled

27. The coroner was able to extract a MINUTE particle of cloth from under the victim`s fingernail.
  1. infinitesimal
  2. significant
  3. large
  4. short

28. Let`s SUPPOSE that we are floating in a cool pool on a hot summer`s day.
  1. imagine
  2. imply
  3. succumb
  4. suggest

29. The students` records were not readily ACCESSIBLE for their perusal.
  1. offered
  2. available
  3. acceptable
  4. accountable

30. Scientists say that brown genes are DOMINANT and blue ones are recessive.
  1. controlling
  2. docile
  3. dormant
  4. doleful

In Part B, the questions are based on a variety of reading material (single sentences, paragraphs, advertisements, and the like). You are to choose the one best answer, (1), (2), (3), or (4), to each question. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the problem and mark your answer. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage. _________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS 31 THROUGH 34 ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING READING. _________________________________________________________ Why would anyone want to set aside a day to honor a lowly little groundhog? The answer to that question is not certain, but a group of people get together every February 2 in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, to watch Punxsutawney "Pete" leave his burrow. What "Pete" does next, many believe, will indicate whether spring is just around the corner or a long way off. You see, in Pennsylvania on this date there is usually a great deal of snow on the ground, and the little animal has been hibernating during the long, cold winter, He gorged himself during the autumn months and then went into his burrow for a long sleep, his body fat helping keep him alive. But as he emerges on February 2, he looks very thin. If the sun is shining brightly and he sees his shadow, according to legend, it scares him back into his home where he will stay another six weeks. Should it be cloudy and gray, the little animal will supposedly wander around for food a sure sign that spring is near. While many believe in the groundhog`s predictions, it is unwise to accept them as factual.

31. According to this reading, who do people gather every year to observe the groundhog?
  1. He`s cute and playful, and children love to watch him.
  2. He`s looking for food and the people want to help him find it in the snow.
  3. Many people believe him to be a harbinger of spring.
  4. The people want to be sure he is alive after such a long winter.

32. How does the groundlog manage to stay alive during the long winter?
  1. People set out food for him.
  2. His stored body fat sustains him.
  3. He wakes up on nice days and hunts for food.
  4. It is a mystery as yet unsolved.

33. Which of the following is not true?
  1. Animals have a certain instinct which helps them predict the seasons.
  2. According to the legend, the groundhog leaves his burrow on February 2.
  3. Groups of people in Pennsylvania wait for the groundhog`s predictions.
  4. After his long period of hibernation, the groundhog looks very thin.

34. What prediction does the groundhog supposedly made?
  1. If he sees his shadow, it will soon be spring.
  2. If he sees his shadow, spring will not arrive for another six weeks.
  3. If he does not see his shadow, spring will arrive in six weeks.
  4. If he does not see his shadow, all the snow will disappear immediately.

QUESTIONS 35 THROUGH 38 ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING READING. The First Amendment to the American Constitution declares freedom of the press to all men. Although this right was not officially adopted until 1791, the famous Zenger trial of 1735 laid the ground work for insuring this precious freedom. John Peter Zenger emigrated as a tenager from Germany. In 1733 he began publishing the New York Weekly Journal, The following year, he was arrested for writing a story about the crown-appointed governor of New York. While he was imprisoned for nine months, Zenger`s wife dutifully published the newpaper every day, bravely telling the truth about the corrupt government officials sent by the king to govern the colonies. Finally Zenger`s long-awaited trial took place. The hostile judge dismissed Zenger`s local lawyers, making it necessary for his wife to seek out Andrew Hamilton, a prominent Philadelphia lawyer. Persuaded By Hamilton, the jury bravely returned a not- guilty verdict defying the judge`s orders for a convection. As a result of determination and bravery on the part of the colonists, a lasting victory for freedom of the press was set by a young immigrant.

35. John Peter Zenger was a __________________
  1. corrupt governor of New York
  2. famous lawyer
  3. brave newspaper publisher
  4. hostile judge

36. What political problem existed in the colonies at that time?
  1. Government officials were corrupt.
  2. Newspapers exagerated the truth about the political officials.
  3. Lawyers were hostile to witnesses.
  4. All newspaper publishers were imprisoned.

37. How long did it take after the Zenger trial before the concept of freedom of the press was officially adopted?
  1. 9 months
  2. I year
  3. 56 years
  4. 58 years

38. Which os the following is not true?
  1. Despite Zenger`s imprisonment, his newspaper continued to be published.
  2. Andrew Hamilton encouraged the jury to fight for freedom.
  3. The jury obeyed the judge`s orders and convicted Zenger.
  4. The king controlled the colonies through his own appointed rulers.

QUESTIONS 39 THROUGH 41 ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING READING. When buying a house, house must be sure to have it checked for termites. A termite is much like an ant in its communal habits, although physically the two insects are distinct. Like those of ants, termite colonies consist of different classes, each with its own particular job. The most perfectly formed termites, both male and female, make up the reproductive class. They have eyes, hard body walls, and fully developed wings. A pair of reproductive termites founds the colony. When new reproductive termites develop, they leave to form another colony, They use their wings only this one time and then break them off. The worker termites are small, blind, and wingless, with soft bodies. They make up the majority of the colony and do all the work. Soldiers are also wingless and blind but are larger than the workers and have hard heads and strong jaws and legs. They defend the colony and are cared for by the workers. The male and female of the reproductive class remain inside a closed-in cell where the female lays thousands of eggs. The workers place the eggs in cells and care for them.

39. How are termites like ants?
  1. They live in communities, and each class has a specific duty.
  2. Their bodies are the same shape.
  3. The king and queen are imprisoned.
  4. The females` reproductive capacities are the same.

40. Which of the following is not true?
  1. All termites have eves.
  2. Some termites cannot fly.
  3. Workers are smaller than soldiers.
  4. Termites do not fly often.

41. Which of the following statements is probably true?
  1. Thousands of termites may move together to develop a new colony.
  2. The male and female reproductives do not venture outdoors except to form a new colony.
  3. There are more soldiers than workers.
  4. A worker could easily kill a soldier.

QUESTIONS 42 THROUGH 46 ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING READING. In recent years, there has been an increasing awareness of the inadequacies of the judicial system in the United States. Costs are staggering both for the taxpayers and the litigants - and the litigants, of parties, have to wait sometimes many yeas before having their day in court. Many suggestions have been made concerning methods of ameliorating the situation, but as in most branches of government, changes come slowly. One suggestion that has been made in order to maximize the efficiency of the system is to allow districts that have an overabundance of pending cases to borrow judges from other districts that do not have such a backlog. Another suggestion is to use pretrial conferences, in which the judge meets in his chambers with the litigants and their attorneys in order to narrow the issues, limit the witnesses, and provide for a more orderly trial, The theory behind pretrial conferences is that judges will spend less time on each case and parties will more readily settle before trial then they realize the adequacy of their claims and their opponents` evidence. Unfortunately, at least one study has shown that pretrial conferences actually use more judicial time than they save, rarely result in pretrial settlements, and actually result in higher damage settlements. Many states have now established another method, small- claims courts, in which cases over small sums of money can be disposed of with considerable dispatch. Such proceedings cost the litigants almost nothing, In California, for example, the parties must appear before the judge without the assistance of counsel, The proceedings are quite informal and there is no pleading - the litigants need to make only a one-sentence statement of their claim. By going to this type of court, the plaintiff waives any right to a jury trial and the right to appeal the decision. In coming years, we can expect to see more and more innovations in the continuing effort to remedy a situation which must be remedied if the citizens who have valid claims are going to be able to have their day in court.

42. The pretrial conference, tn theory, is supposed to do all of the following except.
  1. narrow the issues
  2. cause early settlements
  3. save judicial time
  4. increase settlement costs

43. What is the main topic of the passage?
  1. All states should follow California`s example in using small- claims courts in order to free judges for other work.
  2. The legislature needs to formulate fewer laws so that the judiciary can catch up on its older cases.
  3. Nobody seems to care enough to attempt to find methods for making the judicial system more efficient.
  4. While there are many problems with the court system. there are viable suggestions for improvement.

44. The word litigants means most nearly
  1. jury members
  2. commentators
  3. parties in a lawsuit
  4. taxpayers

45. Which of the following is true about small-claims courts?
  1. It is possible to have one`s case heard by a jury if he of she is dissatisfied with the court`s decision.
  2. The litigants must plead accurately and accurately and according to a strict form.
  3. The decision may not be appealed to a higher court.
  4. The parties may not present their cases without an attorney`s help.

46. What can we assume from the passage?
  1. Most people who feel they have been wronged have a ready remedy in courts of law.
  2. Many people would like to bring a case to court, but are unable to because of the cost and time required.
  3. The judicial system in the United States is highly acclaimed for its efficiency.
  4. Pretrial conferences will someday probably have replaced trials completely.

QUESTIONS 47 THROUGH 50 ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING READING. In 1971, the great Persian Empire celebrated the 1500th anniversary of its founding. Its founder was Cyrus the Great, who proclaimed himself the King of Kings. His son Cambyses succeeded him, conquering Egypt and expanding the empire. Darius I followed Cambyses and was probably the most famous of this long line of kings. Under his rule, the empire stretched as far as India. Governors were placed in charge of the provinces. Extensive systems of roads and waterways improved communication throughout the realm. He was one of a few ancient rulers who permitted his subjects to worship as they wished. The magnificent city of Persepolis, founded under his direction in 518 B.C.,was a ceremonial center then as wall as in the 1970's.

47. Who is considered the founder of the Persian Empire?
  1. Persepolis
  2. Cyrus
  3. Darius I
  4. Cambyses

48. In what year was the Persian Empire founded?
  1. 2500 B.C.
  2. 518 B.C.,
  3. 529 B.C.
  4. 971 B.C.

49. Who was the predecessor of Cambyses?
  1. Egypt
  2. Darius I
  3. Persepolis
  4. Cyrus

50. Which of the following best describes the empire under DariusI?
  1. ceremonial
  2. bellicose
  3. punitive
  4. progressive

QUESTIONS 51 THROUGH 54 BASED ON THE FOLLOWING READING. In an effort to produce the largest, fastest, and most luxurious ship afloat, the British built the Titanic. It was so superior to anything else on the seas that it was dubbed unsinkable". So sure of this were the owners that they provided lifeboats for only 950 of its possible 3.500 passengers. Many passengers were aboard the night it rammed an iceberg, only two days at sea and more than half way between England and the New York destination. Because the luxury liner was traveling so fast, it was impossible to avoid the ghostly looking iceberg. An unextinguished fire also contributed to the ship's submersion. Panic increased the number of casualties as people jumped into the icy water or fought to be among the few to board the lifeboats. Four hours after the mishap, another ship, the Carpathia, rescued the survivors - less than a third of those originally aboard. The infamous Titanic enjoyed only two days of sailing glory on its maiden voyage in 1912 before plunging into 12,000 feet of water near the coast of Newfoundland, where it lies today.

51. Which of the following is not true?
  1. Only a third of those aboard perished.
  2. The Carpathia rescued the survivors.
  3. The Titanic sank near Newfoundland.
  4. The Titanic was the fastest ship afloat in 1912.

52. Which of the following did not contribute to large death toll?
  1. panic
  2. fire
  3. speed
  4. Carpathia

53. How many days was the Titanic at sea before sinking?
  1. 2
  2. 4
  3. 6
  4. 12

54. The word unextinguished means most nearly the same as
  1. indestructable
  2. uncontrollable
  3. undiscovered
  4. unquenched

QUESTIONS 55 THROUGH 58 ARE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING READING. The Great Pyramid of Giza, a monument of wisdom and prophecy, was built as a tomb for Pharaoh Cheops in 2720 B.C. Despite its antiquity, certain aspects of its construction make it one of the truly great wonders of the world. The four sides of the pyramid are aligned almost exactly on true north, south, east, and west - an incredible engineering fiat. The ancient Egyptians were sun worshipers and great astronomers, so computations for the Great Pyramid were based on astronomical observations. Explorations and detailed examinations of the base of the structure reveal many intersecting lines. Further scientific study indicates that these represent a type of time line of events - past, present, and future. Many of the events have been interpreted and found to coincide with known facts of the past. Others are prophesied for future generations and are presently under investigation. Was this superstructure made by ordinary beings, or one built by a race are superior to any known today?

55. Approximately how long ago was the Great Pyramid constructed?
  1. 640 years
  2. 2,720 years
  3. 4,000 years
  4. 4,7000 years

56. On what did the ancient Egyptians base their calculations?
  1. observation of the celestial bodies
  2. advanced technology
  3. advanced tools of measurement
  4. knowledge of the earth's surface

57. Why was the Great Pyramid constructed?
  1. as a solar observatory
  2. as a religious temple
  3. as a tomb for the pharoah
  4. as an engineering feat

58. Why is the Great Pyramid of Giza considered on of the seven wonders of the world?
  1. It is perfectly aligned with the four cardinal points of the compass and contains many prophecies.
  2. It was selected as the tomb of Pharaoh Cheops.
  3. It was built by a super race.
  4. It is very old.

_________________________________ DIRECTIONS FOR QUESTIONS 59 AND 60 For each of these questions, choose the answer that is closest in meaning to the original sentence. Note that several of the choices may be factually correct, but you should choose the one that is the closest restatement of the given sentence.

59. Parents have become increasingly concerned about the television viewing habits of their children - so much so that families are beginning to censor the programs that enter their homes.
  1. Families watch television together more often now than in the past so that they can decide whether shows are desirable or not.
  2. Families with televisions are not as close as families without televisions because the former bicker more over program choices.
  3. Although parents worry about the programs that their children watch they find it difficult because censorship is not what it used to be.
  4. (4)Because of their concern over the television programs that are aired many parents are deciding which programs they will allow their children to watch.

60. Children reared in poverty tend. ot the average to do poorly on tests of intelligence.
  1. Impoverished children are generally not as intelligent as rich children.
  2. Behind the poverty trend is an assumption that children are stupid.
  3. Children from poor families have a tendency to fare badly on intelligence tests.
  4. Intelligence tests are poorly administered to poor children.